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《装卸时刻与滞期费》第3章-装卸时刻的起算-76

来历:魏长庚  2019-06-20  我要谈论(0  

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《装卸时刻与滞期费》第6版CHAPTER 3 第3章Commencement of laytime 装卸时刻的起算CHAPTER 3 第3章Commencement of laytime装卸...

《装卸时刻与滞期费》第6版

CHAPTER 3 第3章

Commencement of laytime 装卸时刻的起算

CHAPTER 3 第3章

Commencement of laytime

装卸时刻的起算

3.459 The Court of Appeal were given a chance to consider this type of provision in Shipping Developments Corporation SA v. V/O Sojuzneftexport (The Delian Spirit). [1] In this case, the Delian Spirit arrived off the port of Tuapse to load a cargo of crude oil, but as, due to congestion, no berth was available, she anchored in the roads and gave notice of readiness. She lay in the roads for five days before a berth became available.

3.459在Shipping Developments Corporation SA v. V/O Sojuzeftexport(The Delian Spirit)案,上诉法院得以有机会对这类条文进行谈论。在该案中,Delian Spirit轮去黑海Tuapse港装原油,因为拥堵没有可用的泊位,该轮在港外的锚地拋锚并递交了准备就绪通知书,她等了5天才靠泊。

3.460 In the subsequent arbitration proceedings, the umpire held that on arrival in the roads she was not an Arrived ship, but in the High Court[2] Donaldson J was in no doubt that she was an Arrived ship in the technical sense, a conclusion shared by the Court of Appeal. Despite his decision on this point, Donaldson J held that time ran under the laytime provisions but that the owners were nevertheless also entitled to claim damages for detention during the same period by virtue of a breach of the ‘‘reachable on arrival’’ provision. The Court of Appeal disagreed, preferring the reasoning of Roskill J in The President Brand.[3] Lord Denning put it this way:[4] So it is said the charterers are liable in damages... and are also liable to demurrage after the laytime expired. The judge accepted that submission, but I cannot agree with it. It would be most unjust that the charterers should be made liable twice over. The answer is given by a long line of cases which establish that where the charterers have been guilty of a breach causing delay, they are entitled to apply their laytime so as to diminish or extinguish any claim for the delay, leaving the shipowners to claim for demurrage at the agreed rate for any extra delay over and above the laytime.

The remainder of the court agreed, Fenton Atkinson LJ saying:[5] While in certain circumstances which I do not think it is necessary to attempt to define on the facts of this case you can have an arrival of a ship... before that ship becomes technically an arrived ship for laytime purposes, and therefore the charterer who has failed to provide a berth at the time of such arrival will become liable for damages for detention, once the ship becomes an arrived ship in the technical sense the position is different, and in my judgment the charterer gets the advantage of the laytime provided by the charterparty . . .

3.460在随后的裁决中,公评人裁决抵达外锚地不能被视为抵达船。但高等法院,Donaldson法官却毫不犹豫地疲惫说从技能上讲她是抵达船只。这一定论得到了上诉法院的支撑。Donaldson法官还断定:虽然在这一点上,装卸时刻是依照装卸时刻条款的规矩起算,但188bet注册仍是有权根据违背‘抵达即牢靠泊’的规矩索赔这一时期的滞期推迟丢失。但上诉法院并不认同,倾向于支撑Roskill法官在The President Brand案的理由。Denning勋爵是这样说的:假如这样说,承租人应担任丢失……还应担任装卸时刻届满后的滞期费。虽然高院法官承受这一观念,但我不能赞同。要求承租人补偿两次,这是非常不公平的。已树立的一长串的事例给出的答复是:虽然承租人违约形成推迟,他们仍有权适用他们的装卸时刻条款(在外时刻)来削减或抵销对推迟的任何索赔,只让188bet注册依照约好的费率来索赔超出装卸时刻之外的那部分推迟。

法庭上其他的2名大法官均赞同他的观念,Fenton Atkinson大法官说:虽然在某种状况下,对此我并不认为有必要再去加以界说,根据本案的现实,从技能上讲在她成为抵达船之前,为了装卸时刻的起算,你能够疲惫她是抵达船……因而,承租人未能在该轮在这一抵达其时供给泊位,就得对此滞期推迟丢失担任。一旦该轮从技能畅所欲言上成为抵达船,其位置就不相同了,依我判别,承租人能够得到租船合同所规矩的装卸时刻的有利条件(在外时刻)……

[1] Shipping Developments Corporation SA v. V/O Sojuzneftexport (The Delian Spirit) [1971] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 506 (CA).

[2] The Delian Spirit [1971] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 64.

[3] The Delian Spirit [1971] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 506, at p. 509.

[4] Lord Denning said the long line of cases to which he referred started with Petersen v. Dunn & Co (1895) 1 CC 8 and finished with Roskill J’s decision in The President Brand [1967] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 338.

[5] The Delian Spirit [1971] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 506, at p. 510.

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