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《装卸时刻与滞期费》第3章-装卸时刻的起算-75

来历:魏长庚  2019-06-20  我要谈论(0  

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《装卸时刻与滞期费》第6版CHAPTER 3 第3章Commencement of laytime 装卸时刻的起算CHAPTER 3 第3章Commencement of laytime装卸...

《装卸时刻与滞期费》第6版

CHAPTER 3 第3章

Commencement of laytime 装卸时刻的起算

CHAPTER 3 第3章

Commencement of laytime

装卸时刻的起算

3.456 Charterers, as in the previous case, sought to argue that arrival meant that the vessel had to be an Arrived ship, but again this contention was rejected, the judge finding that arrival was used in the popular sense of that word as opposed to the technical meaning it had in connection with when a vessel became an Arrived ship. Commenting on this aspect, Roskill J said:

I think as a matter of ordinary common sense if one asked two businessmen if a ship had arrived at Lourenco Marques when she reported at the pilot station in that way and in those circumstances they would answer: ‘‘Yes, she has arrived there’’, notwithstanding that she had not yet got within the commercial limits of the port.

On the meaning of ‘‘reachable’’, he said:

‘‘Reachable’’ as a matter of grammar means ‘‘able to be reached’’. There may be many reasons why a particular berth or discharging place cannot be reached. It may be because another ship is occupying it; it may be because there is an obstruction between where the ship is and where she wishes to go; it may be because there is not a sufficiency of water to enable her to get there. The existence of any of those obstacles can prevent a particular berth or dock being reachable and in my judgment a particular berth or dock is just as much not reachable if there is not enough water to enable the vessel to traverse the distance from where she is to that place as if there were a ship occupying that place at the material time. Accordingly, in my judgment, the charterers’ obligation was to nominate a berth which the vessel could reach on arrival and they are in breach of that obligation if they are unable so to do.

3.456承租人,好像前例相同,妄图争论,‘抵达’指的是船只有必要成为抵达船,但再一次被法官驳回。法官确定:这儿所谓的抵达是这个词的一般意思,这同一艘已成为抵达船有关的技术上的意义是相对而言的。关于这点,Roskill法官是这样解说的:

我想,依照一般的常识,假如一个功德的第三者用这种方法问询两个商人:当船只陈述已抵达了引水站,她是否应算已抵达了Lourenco Marques马布托港呢?在这种景象下,他们会答到:‘是的,她已抵达那里’,虽然该轮还未进入该港的商业区域范围内。.

有关‘牢靠泊的’的意义,他说:

‘牢靠泊’依照语法上的解说应为‘可以靠泊’。当然,某一详细泊位或卸货地不能靠泊的原因或许有许多。或许是有其他船在占用着;或许在该轮所在的方位与她想去的方位之间存在着某种妨碍;或许由于水深缺乏使她无法前往那里。上面任一种妨碍都会使得那个泊位或码头无法靠泊。所以,我判别,假如这儿没有满足水深而致使船只不能经过从锚地到泊位或码头这段间隔,该泊位或码头刚好便是不能靠泊的,就好像其时有船在那儿占用相同。因而,在我看来,承租人的职责便是指定一个船只一到就能靠上的泊位,假如他做不到这一点,便是没有实行此项职责。

3.457 The judge also pointed out that, in some cases, of which the present one was an example, a breach might arise without the fault of either party, but nevertheless even in those circumstances, as a matter of construction, the clause provided that loss of time should fall on the charterers and not the owners.

3.457法官接着又指出:在一些事例中,比方现在的这一个,这种违约或许两边当事人并没有差错,但无论怎样,即便在这些状况下,依据合同解说,条款规矩这一时刻丢失应该落在承租人的身上,而不是188bet注册。

3.458 Later in his judgment, he went on to consider when the charterers’ liability ended. On the day when the ship was able to cross the bar, she began to move at 0130, anchored again at 0400 within the port and gave notice of readiness at 1100. The charterers argued that, even if the judge was against them on the principal issue, nevertheless their liability should not extend beyond 0400, when the vessel re-anchored to await a berth. However, on this point the judge also ruled against them, holding that the owners had not unreasonably delayed before giving notice, but, he continued:

I am not saying that if in another case it could be shown that the owners or the master has wrongly delayed giving notice of readiness the position might not be otherwise. That does not arise in the present case.

Roskill J therefore concluded that the President Brand had been delayed from her arrival at the Pilot Station at 08 00 on 19 April until 1100 on 23 April by the charterers’ failure to procure a berth, reachable on arrival, for which damages for detention calculated at the demurrage rate were payable. From that period, however, there was to be deducted the 2 1/2 hours between 0130 and 0400 on 23 April, during which the ship crossed the bar and moved into port. This was not, said the judge, time which was lost by the charterers’ breach, but time which would have been occupied in any event coming into port had the vessel not been held up at the bar.

3.458在其判定书的后边,他又谈到了承租人的这种职责何时完毕的问题。在该轮可以经过浅滩的那天,0130开端行进,0400在港内再次抛锚,1100递送了准备就绪通知书。承租人争论说,即便法官在这一问题上否定了他们的定见,但无论怎样,他们的职责期限也会延伸逾越0400,即该轮再次拋锚等泊的时分。但是,在这一点上,法官也做出对他们晦气的判定:在递送通知书之前,188bet注册没有不合理的推迟。但,他弥补道:

我并不是说,假如在其它案子中可以证明188bet注册或船长过错地推迟了递送准备就绪通知书,状况就会不相同。但这样的事在现在这个案子中并没有发作。

因而,Roskill法官下结论说:由于承租人未能获取一个使船只一到即靠泊的泊位,导致了该轮4月19日0800抵达引水站直到4月23日1100之间发作推迟,这种滞期推迟丢失应按滞期费率核算和付出。但是,从这段时刻,4月23日0130至0400之间应扣除2. 5小时,由于在这期间该轮是在经过浅滩进港。法官说,这不是承租人违约形成的时刻丢失,但,无论怎样,这段2.5小时的时刻都是船只要进港本应花费的时刻,假如船只并没有被浅滩阻滞的话。

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